Coal mine enterprises are faced with the threat of various disaster accidents in mines. Once a variety of disaster accidents occur in mines, emergency response and emergency rescue are particularly important. A large number of facts and cases show how this work will directly affect the handling of accidents. Even the lives of miners and the survival of mines are related to the major issues of social stability. This article starts with the main points of the major accident rescue procedures for mines and discusses some issues such as the improvement of rescue procedures and hopes to draw lessons from the relevant counterparts.
1 Safety Production Accident Emergency Management System
In order to strengthen the emergency response and comprehensive command capabilities of coal mine enterprises in responding to various sudden and serious accidents, improve the ability and coordination of rapid rescue response and coordination, and ensure the occurrence of safety production accidents, take immediate effective measures to organize rescue and prevent As accidents increase and secondary accidents are engendered, and personnel casualties and property losses are minimized, an emergency rescue management system must be established.
1.1 Set up an accident emergency work leading group
Group leader: The mine leader serves as the deputy leader: the chief engineer, the chief of the mine, the chief of the safety mine, the director of the electromechanical mine, etc.; member: The section chief of the production management department and the director of the production workshop are responsible. The office of the emergency rescue team is located in the company office and has an emergency phone: xxx â€”â€”â€” xxxxxxxx , emergency telephone number for emergency vehicle office, vehicle type, vehicle number, number of emergency vehicles, and person in charge.
1.2 Principles of Emergency Rescue Work
(1) Fully implement the duty system for work safety. The three-level management of the daily workshop, the leadership of the mining supervisor, and the two-level management of the department offices must establish and maintain the work system on duty. Once there are safety production and emergency accidents, the staff on duty at all levels must rush to the scene of the accident and keep a watchful eye. The on-site production personnel and cadres together perform emergency handling.
(2) The principle of unified command of emergency response. The members of the Leading Group for Emergency Response Work must accept the unified command and unified arrangements of the commanding headquarters and actively participate in the emergency handling of all types of accidents in accordance with the requirements of the emergency rescue plan.
(3) The principle of complementary bits and automatic recharging. When the leader of the working group is not in the post, the first member is automatically covered. All types of accidents are mainly responsible for the leadership of the emergency work by the corresponding management personnel.
(4) The principle of emergency response and automatic stoppage. When the accident occurred, all members of the emergency work leading group took leave of absence and took the initiative to go to the company to participate in the emergency work. If you work at home and shift to work, regardless of day or night and fatigue, you must rush to the unit to stand by or put into rescue work.
(5) Emergency Rescue adheres to the principle of due diligence. Once an accident occurs, all members of the emergency work leading group must perform due diligence, refuse indifference, convey warmth, and make selfless dedication. They should not be ashamed of their will and be fully committed to emergency rescue operations.
1.3 Scope of application
When the coal __________ mine produces a safety production class accident, a major safety accident or a major accident, a safety production accident emergency response mechanism must be initiated.
1.4 Emergency measures
Combine the safety production practice of coal mining enterprises, formulate emergency handling measures and plans for all kinds of sudden injury and serious accidents, clarify the organization and leadership, department responsibilities, resource allocation and use, and disposal responsibilities to ensure that once a mine produces a production safety accident, it can quickly Effectively organizing and coordinating personnel of related departments, and properly dispose of them in accordance with the law.
1.5 Production Safety Incident Report
Once a major safety accident occurs in a mine, the person in charge of the company must report truthfully to the higher authorities in accordance with the prescribed time, procedures and contents.
1.6 Disposal Process
(1) Start-up plan: After a major production safety accident occurs, the department or person who first receives the report must report to the leading team of the accident emergency work at the first time. The work leading group immediately verifies the nature of the incident, casualties, etc. through various means. accident location, time and other information about the accident and quickly called all the members of the working group, reporting the accident scene, a careful analysis, study to assess the extent of the accident hazards, to determine whether to activate the emergency response plan within 10 minutes.
(2) Pre-disposal: After the emergency plan is started, relevant personnel shall be promptly dispatched to the scene, together with related workshops, departments and personnel, after comprehensively checking and verifying the nature of the incident, the time of occurrence, the cause of the incident, the scope of the incident, and the loss of personnel, etc., Report to the work leading group in a timely manner. According to the requirements of the plan, on-site rescue work should be done. In particular, the on-site personnel should do their own rescue, mutual rescue and on-the-spot first aid work to eliminate the initial disaster accidents and reduce the losses caused.
(3) Information release: According to the situation, the rescue team will issue information on the phone and report it to higher organizations and competent authorities. When an alert needs to be issued to the community and the periphery, the person in charge of the company sends an alert message to the government and the surrounding traffic control department.
(4) On-site disposal: After reaching the site, rescue personnel must coordinate relevant departments to take timely measures such as control, rescue and preservation to prevent the situation from expanding or secondary accidents. Special personnel are required to register accidental casualties, including their names. Age, work unit, home address, contact phone, etc.
(5) Remedy: After the emergency rescue operation is over, the rescue command shall issue an order to lift the emergency rescue, establish the leading team for the handling of accidents according to the requirements of the plan, and divide the following four groups to perform work according to the division of duties: Accident investigation team: Responsible for coordinating relevant departments to carry out accident investigations; Aftermath Remediation Team: Responsible for the transfer of accidental wounded staff and payment processing; Reception Working Group: Responsible for the reception of relatives of accidental injured or deceased, appeasement work; Accident funds support group: Responsible for accident rescue and remedy Expenses for funding guarantee work.
2 Key points of emergency rescue procedures for main disaster accidents in mines
According to the characteristics of mine accidents and accident rescue work, mining enterprisesThe industry shall do a good job in the emergency handling of the following major hazardous accidents.
2.1 emergency treatment of mine accidents
Roof fall accidents are the most common and most prone accidents in mines. The main points of emergency handling for roof fall accidents are as follows:
(1) After a roof fall accident occurs, rescue personnel should first contact the person in distress by shouting, tapping, using geophones, etc. to determine the location and number of persons in distress.
(2) If the location of the person in distress is not well ventilated, they must try to strengthen ventilation. If the person in distress has been stuck in the roof, he should use air pressure pipes, water pipes, roadway digging, drilling, etc. to deliver fresh air, beverages and food to the person in distress.
(3) In the rescue, the safety of the ambulance personnel must always be taken care of. If it is detected that there is a danger of recurrence, it is necessary to first strengthen support and prepare for a safe escape. When working in a falling area, special personnel should be assigned to observe changes in the surrounding roof.
(4) Care must be taken to use tools when clearing falling rocks to avoid harming people in distress. During the treatment, different rescue methods should be adopted according to the size of the accident and the ground pressure.
(5) When the roof falls in a small range, if the person in distress is pressed by a large piece of rock, it can be jacked up with a tool such as a jack , and the person can be quickly rescued.
(6) When the roof falls along the coal wall and the rock fragments are relatively broken, and the person in distress is near the coal wall position, a small hole can be drilled along the coal wall from the top-running area and the trapezoidal shed can be used to maintain the roof, and the edge can be protected. Caught holes until people are rescued.
(7) The roof of a large area falls and blocks people in the roadway. It is also possible to rescue people by bypassing the falling area by means of another open roadway.
2.2 Emergency Treatment of Gas Explosion Accidents
The gas explosion shows that in a very short time, a large amount of gas is oxidized, causing heat to accumulate, forming a high temperature and high pressure at the source of the explosion, and then rapidly expanding outwards to generate a huge shock wave and sound. The gas explosion is one of the most destructive accidents in a coal mine accident. The main points of emergency procedures for gas explosion accidents are as follows.
(1) In order to rescue people in distress, it is necessary to be â€œthere must be people who have lanes,â€ and follow the principle of â€œdeath after the first living person, minor injury after serious injury, and difficulty after first injuryâ€.
(2) The dry powder fire extinguishing equipment should be brought into the reconnaissance area when entering the disaster area and the fire source should be extinguished in time. When it is confirmed that there is no fire source in the disaster area that will not cause another explosion, the roadway in the disaster area can be ventilated.
(3) The original ventilation system should be restored as soon as possible, and the air volume should be increased to eliminate the smoke and toxic and harmful gases generated after the gas explosion. The rapid elimination of these gases will not only help rescue people in distress, but also reduce the degree of poisoning of persons in distress, and it may also eliminate threats to other people in the mine.
(4) Clear the blockage of the roadway so as to save people.
(5) Finding the source of fire and extinguishing the fire caused by the explosion.
(6) Do a good job of reconnaissance in the quake-hit areas, searching for explosions, and closing the disaster area.
(7) Issues to which the rescue team should pay attention when handling gas explosions:
1 ask the nature of the accident, the cause, the location and other conditions;
2 cut off the power to the disaster area;
3 When entering the disaster area, you must first carefully check the gas components, and then enter the disaster area when there is no danger of explosion.
4 When reconnaissance discovers that an open flame or other flammable material ignites, it should do everything possible to extinguish it immediately to prevent a second explosion;
5 When there is an open flame, the ambulancemen must take light action so as not to raise dust and coal dust explosions;
6 When the ambulancemen pass through the scaffold to destroy the area or fall into the blocked area, temporary support should be erected to ensure the safety of the crew at these locations.
2.3 Emergency handling of coal dust explosion accidents
The coal powder suspended in air and rapidly retorted under high temperature to produce flammable gas. These gases are mixed with air to burn and emit a lot of heat, which is transmitted to the nearby suspended coal dust to make the combustion cycle continue to cause coal dust explosion. The main points of emergency rescue procedures for coal dust explosion accidents:
(1) When a coal dust explosion occurs, the discoverer first uses the nearby telephone to report to the superior, explaining the location, nature, scope, and coverage of the disaster. At the same time, they managed to notify the personnel on the return side of the quake-hit area to be led by grass-roots cadres, retreat to a fresh air flow point on standby or withdraw from the mine in accordance with the prescribed evacuation route.
(2) All personnel should wear self-rescuer at this time. If it is estimated that the disaster area cannot be withdrawn during the effective use time of the self-rescuer, all available materials on the site should be used to build a temporary refuge chamber and wait for the rescue team to rescue. In order to avoid shock wave damage, in the event of an accident, you should face away from the direction of the shock wave, use a wet towel to protect your face and nose and mouth, and lie on one side of the ditch.
(3) After receiving the accident report, the ore dispatching room shall notify the relevant leader and mine rescue team according to the emergency plan and immediately organize rescue.
(4) The emergency headquarters shall quickly find out the damage location, nature, number of victims, location, ventilation facilities, etc., and formulate disaster relief implementation plans to maintain uninterrupted contact with the rescue team.
(5) The rescue team leader should arrange an action plan based on the disaster relief plan. The headquarters shall also promptly order the logistics department to prepare disaster relief materials and equipment, do a good job of statistics on the number of personnel going down, and organize medical, family and public security work.
(6) The ambulance personnel in the disaster-stricken area should pay attention to the need to concentrate on rescuing the distressed persons and should bring self-rescuing devices or spare breathing apparatus to ensure that the persons in danger get out of safety, and immediately cut off the power in the disaster area. Attention should be paid to power outages from the distribution points outside the disaster-stricken areas. In order to prevent electric sparks from detonating coal dust or gas, a full reconnaissance of the disaster area was carried out and it was discovered that the fire source was immediately extinguished to prevent secondary explosions.
(7) Restore ventilation, remove obstructions, and quickly remove harmful gases.
2.4 emergency treatment of underground fire accidents
According to different heat sources, fires in mines can be divided into two categories: first, external causes of fires, which are caused by external heat sources; and second, internal cause fires, which are caused by certain chemical or physical effects on the combustibles such as minerals. The main points of the procedure for dealing with underground fires are:
(1) The correctness of the ventilation method plays a decisive role in the effectiveness of the fire extinguishing work. Common ventilation methods used in fires include normal ventilation, increase and decrease of air volume, wind resistance, short-circuiting of wind currents, wind isolation, and stop of fan operation. Regardless of the ventilation method, it must satisfy:
1 Do not make gas accumulate, and the dust will fly, causing explosions;
2 does not endanger the safety of underground personnel;
3 not to spread the fire to the area where the gas accumulates, nor to allow the exceeding gas to pass through the fire;
4 Helps to prevent the fire from expanding, suppress the fire, and create conditions that are close to the fire source;
5 to prevent the occurrence of regenerative fire and the retreat of fire smoke;
6 to prevent the formation of fire pressure, causing the wind to reverse.
(2) In order to approach the fire source and save the fire, the fire smoke from the digging lane shall be promptly removed.
(3) Methods of extinguishing downhole fires include direct fire extinguishing ( water extinguishing, inert gas extinguishing, foam extinguishing, etc. ) and isolation of fire extinguishing methods ( sealing
Fire- fighting area ) , comprehensive fire-fighting method ( injection of mud and sand, pressure equalization, direct fire extinguishing at intervals, etc. ) .
(4) Fire extinguishing is most convenient and effective. Requires sufficient water supply to ensure uninterrupted supply; normal ventilation, so that the fire smoke and water vapor can be discharged smoothly; fire should be gradually injected from the edge of the fire to the center to prevent the explosion of large quantities of water vapor; frequent inspection of the fire area The nearby gas prevents the explosion.
(5) Inert gas extinguishing is to send asphyxiating gas that does not participate in the combustion reaction to a fire zone with a certain power, so that the oxygen content in the fire zone falls below the suppression value, thereby suppressing the burning and explosion of combustibles. The most common inert gas is nitrogen. Inert gas can be used to extinguish the fire when it is impossible to get close to the fire or use other methods to directly extinguish the fire.
(6) The high-power foam can insulate the fire and cover the combustion materials, generate water vapor and absorb heat, prevent the heat conduction, heat convection and heat radiation of the fire field. The fire is powerful and fast, and thus it is also widely used. Fight underground fires.
(7) The isolation fire extinguishing method is to construct a closed wall in the roadway leading to the fire zone, cut off the oxygen source in the fire zone, gradually reduce the oxygen content in the fire zone, gradually increase the carbon dioxide content, and extinguish the fire. This method is suitable when it is difficult to access the fire source and it cannot be fire extinguished directly or when the fire extinguishing is ineffective. The closed material that is extinguished by fire isolation method is widely used and can be easily solved on the spot. It is easy to build and easy to unseal.
(8) Grouting and fire extinguishing is a simpler comprehensive fire extinguishing method. It uses the pressure generated by the difference between the ground and the downhole, plus the pressure of the mud itself, injects the previously mixed mud into the fire zone to achieve the purpose of extinguishing the fire. The grouting fire extinguishing has the advantages of direct fire extinguishing and fire extinguishing, and it is easy to use, economical and effective. Therefore, it is widely used in mines.
(9) Pressure equalizing Ventilation Preventing fire extinguishing is to reduce the air pressure difference between the two ends of the air leakage path to reduce the air leakage by changing the pressure distribution in the ventilation system. The fire extinguishing can be accelerated by reducing the oxygen supply in the fire area. Pressure equalization, ventilation, and extinguishing are applicable to locations where the source of the fire is unclear and difficult for personnel to access. It is difficult to use direct or isolated fire.
(10) Subsequent unsealing The direct fire extinguishing is a fire extinguishing method frequently used by the rescue team. When the range of fire source is large and the speed of spread is fast and the fire in the closed fire zone is weakened, the fire extinguishing method can be used once a paragraph is opened.
2.5 Emergency Treatment of Underground Flood Accidents
When the mine water exceeds the drainage capacity of the mine or a sudden water inrush occurs underground, it will cause flooding. Local roadways will be flooded by light, flooded by heavy wells, and the mine will die. After a flood occurred in a mine, people were often trapped underground waiting for help. This was the focus of the rescue work. The main points of emergency procedures for downhole floods are:
(1) It is necessary to understand the location and nature of the water inrush, the estimated water volume, the static water level, the influx of water after the water inrush, the scope of impact, the source of supply water, and the surface water bodies influencing.
(2) Grasp the scope of the disaster area, the distribution of personnel before the accident, the locations where survival conditions exist in the mine, and the possible passages into the site to facilitate rapid rescue.
(3) Organize strong drainage according to the volume of water and influent water, and at the same time block the source of ground supply water.
(4) Strengthen the ventilation during drainage and rescue, cut off the power supply in the disaster area, and prevent the gas that has accumulated in the empty space from detonating or suddenly flooding out of other areas.
(5) During reconnaissance and rescue operations after drainage, it is necessary to prevent roof fall, bottom out, and second inrush.
(6) Handling and rescuing persons in danger shall prevent sudden changes in the conditions and living conditions to which the wounded have adapted and cause undue casualties.
(7) When rescuing a distressed person trapped in the mine for a long period of time, it should be noted that when a person in distress is found, it is forbidden to use the headlight beam to direct their eyes, so as to avoid sharp contraction of pupils under strong light, causing blindness of the eyes. The correct method is to cover the headlights with a piece of clothing, so that the light is weakened, or blindfolded in the eye of the person in distress, until the pupil gradually shrink until it returns to normal, you can see the light. When a person in distress is found, he or she may not be lifted out of the well immediately. Care should be taken to protect body temperature. Initial treatment ( such as dressings, infusions, injections, etc. ) should be carried out in a safe place downhole and sent to the hospital for special care after the mood is stabilized. In the early stages of treatment, avoid visits by relatives and friends to prevent excessive excitement from affecting the health of the person in distress or causing death. Distressed workers do not eat for long periods
The function of the system is extremely weakened and there is an urgent need for nutritional supplements. It is advisable to use small amounts of meals and meals, and to use soft, nutritious and high-protein foods.
The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.
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